Battery X

Battery X Recycling Technologies Inc. (“Battery X”) is developing technologies for refining battery metals including from black mass (a mixture of nickel, manganese, cobalt oxides, and graphite) created after spent lithium-ion batteries are dismantled and shredded. Battery X is also developing methods to reduce the use of harsh chemicals and carbon dioxide emissions in metals processing.

Black mass is the industry term used to describe the material remaining once spent lithium-ion batteries are shredded and all casings removed. Black mass contains high-value elements, including nickel, cobalt, manganese, copper, lithium, and graphite, that once recovered, can be recycled to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

Battery X has undertaken extensive research on innovation opportunities to reduce carbon emissions from metals refining with an emphasis on critical metals forecast to be in chronic shortage in the Lithium-ion battery supply chain. Ongoing research will be undertaken to investigate the viability of froth floatation and the use of green solvents which may potentially displace the use of sulphuric acid widely used in hydrometallurgical processes.

Battery X is a party to a Collaborative Research Agreement with the University of British Columbia (“UBC”) whereby Battery X and the UBC will conduct research work to identify optimize black mass prior to processing.


To become a world leader in the battery recycling and battery materials sector. 


We are on a mission to solve the problems in battery recycling technologies, systems, processes, and applications to create a cleaner future for tomorrow.


At present, although lithium battery materials can be recycled, the recovery rate of these materials in various conventional processes can be underwhelming. The price of battery materials has fluctuated sharply recently due to the increased demand and sales of electric vehicles. For example, lithium carbonate increased by 95% in 2022. Incorporating circular economic thinking into supply chains to leverage recycled materials is of the utmost importance both in terms of meeting demand for raw material as well as securing low carbon sources of these critical metals. Other issues to consider are as follows:


According to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence the North American battery industry is expected to see a continued shortage of critical metals for the foreseeable future:

Timeline battery industry domestic demand

Cobalt, nickel, and lithium recycling processes are nowhere near ready for the scale required for the energy transition to become reality and to deal with the imminent influx of recyclable materials. These recycling processes will have to adequately regain cobalt, nickel, copper, and aluminium from spent battery cells, while also regaining a significant share of lithium and other potentially valuable and recoverable materials such as graphite and manganese.


Processing Plant Input:

Processing Plant Input

Processing Plant Output:

Processing Plant Output



North American Gigafactories

*North American supply chain will be under pressure for the foreseeable future due to significant expected investment in domestic battery production as demonstrated above.




IP Development

Joint Development Partnership with the University of British Columbia and Professor of Mining Marek Pawlik MASc, PhD, PEng (chemical engineering).

Overview of Key Research Objectives

  1. R&D of froth flotation on black mass and mfg. scrap

    Research indicates that froth flotation of graphite from Mn/Co oxides is possible and that the oxides themselves could also be separated by flotation. However, those studies have been completed on pure model powders, not industry grade black mass. Research will be focused on determining feasibility of froth flotation on black mass and the creation of a concentrate that increases the suitability of green solvent refining. to identify physicochemical conditions (pH, reagent types, dosages) to separate black mass into individual components using froth flotation, with focus on selective recovery of cobalt-bearing oxides.
  1.  R&D of green solvents on black mass, mfg. scrap & lithium brine

    Initial lab research has shown that green solvents can selectively extract metals from LIB cathodes. Further research is needed to determine if the technology works directly on industry grade black mass (cathode + anode) and manufacturing scrap (cathode) or better on a tailor-made concentrate. What are the respective recovery rates and economics compared to current hydrometallurgy used in industry. An LCA for both processes will need to be completed to compare carbon footprint between technologies. Data will be used for a go/no go decision on whether to pursue commercialisation. Also, we will perform initial testing on lithium brine to determine if there is potential for green solvent extraction in mining operations.
  1. R&D on cathode regeneration and new cell manufacturing

    Academic research indicates that hydrothermal processes can be used to regenerate degraded or destroyed LIB cathodes. Research will be focused on determining whether green solvents can be used in the hydrothermal process to improve sustainability of cathode regeneration.

Opportunity – Electrowinning (Green Solvents)

Recycling efficiency diagram


Cathode Regeneration (With Green Solvents)

Proprietary Concentrates

Battery Repurposing

Battery Repurposing

Short Term Milestones and Objectives

Long Term Milestones and Objectives

Partnership Strategy

Battery X is actively engaged with several industry stakeholders to develop strategic alliances which are mutually beneficial. We are in advanced discussions and targeting the following: